Your Results - What you will receive

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Chromo2 Ancestry Test

View a demonstration Chromo2 result including the historical narrative and supporting materials.

Chromo2 All my Ancestry [AMA] Icon

All My Ancestry Test

View a demonstration of a chromosome painting. Discover what a global connections plot looks like and tells you.

Chromo2 Blue Eyes Icon

Blue Eyes Test

View an example of the Blue Eye results. Compare your result to the rest of the nation, discover the blue eyes story and learn the science behind your results.

Chromo2 Red Head Icon

Red-Head Test

View your redhead variants plotted on the MC1R gene, their transmission probabilities and variant strength.

Chromo2 Ancestry Test Results

Below is a snapshot of the information you will receive with the results of your Chromo2 DNA Ancestry test. Here, we have used the YDNA result I-M253 - Teutonic as an example. Your mtDNA results will contain similar information.

Printed Presentation Packs

Printed Presentation Packs

New and only for Chromo2 customers, these printed results packs include brochures featuring separate ancestral narratives for the motherline and fatherline, as well as certificates and printed Red-Head Test results (where ordered). With stunning imagery and packed full of information, these brochures provide an excellent addition to the interactive online results experience. A pack of printed results costs £12 including UK postage (for overseas, additional postage charges will apply). If you would like one, please call 0845 872 7634.


You will be provided with the internationally recognised genetic term for your haplogroup e.g. I-M253 along with our interpretation of this in the form of a group name e.g. Teutonic.

By using custom genotyping assay we can test your YDNA and/or mtDNA for over 18,000 markers. We will provide you with a list of the markers that you test positive for, which collectively determine your haplogroup and subtype.


Your key YDNA marker is I-M253. The marker of the TEUTONS. This was brought to Britain by your ancestors from Northern Europe. At first they came as mercenary soldiers and as raiders but later they began to settle along the eastern coastlands.

Your haplogroup, which tracks your paternal lineage, is I-M253 and it is most common in Northern Germany, Denmark and Sweden, with outliers in the Southern Volga region in Russia and in Iberia.


Historical Narrative

The main part of your result includes our interpretation of your markers as our historians and geneticists collaborate to piece together your genetic journey. Starting with our most ancient and most shared ancestors’ first steps out of Africa, they will guide you through subdividing genetic groups eventually reaching discussion of your haplogroup specifically.

Hadrians Wall

The story of your ancestors sails out of the mists and uncertainties of prehistory during the four centuries of the Roman province of Britannia. As the Empire in the west weakened, mercenaries were drafted in to garrison Britain and some found their way north, to the ramparts of Hadrian’s Wall and its great fortresses. Altars dedicated to gods known to have been worshipped in Northern Germany and Northern Holland have been found near Housesteads Fort. One inscription commemorates the Numerus Hnaudufredi, a mercenary detachment of North Germans brought to the Wall to garrison its dramatic central section. The translation is something like ‘Notfried’s Own’ and they sound like a prince and his warband. And some of them may very well have carried your DNA.

As the Empire frayed and fragmented, more warriors from Northern Germany and Southern Scandinavia sailed the North Sea in search of adventure and loot, and when the province of Britannia finally collapsed in the 5th century, more men carrying your DNA marker began to settle in Eastern Britain. The centuries of the Anglo-Saxon invasions had begun.

These incursions from the east continued until the 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons were followed by Danish invaders, men who also brought your marker to Britain when they colonised and controlled much of the north and east of England, what was called the Danelaw.

By the early 8th century the first genuinely scholarly historian of these islands, Bede of Jarrow, wrote The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. In it he mapped a Britain largely ruled by kings whose ancestors had come from Southern Scandinavia and Northern Germany, and their language, what became English, was displacing the native Celtic dialects. Northumbria was the first of these new kingdoms to flourish and at its zenith, it encompassed most of South-Eastern Scotland, only giving up the Tweed Valley in the 11th century. Its greatest saint, Cuthbert, was born near Melrose. While it certainly arrived in prehistory with the people who walked across Doggerland and much later with the Danes, it is likely that your DNA marker, I-M253, is Northumbrian and that it found its way into Scotland and Britain in the 7th century.

Your Haplogroup World Distribution Map

You will be provided with an interactive map demonstrating the percentage of people in selected countries who are fellow members of your haplogroup and therefore share your genetic lineage.

Chromo2 interactive World Map

British Isles Distribution

Another extra of Chromo2 is a regional breakdown of your Haplogroup Distribution map, showing the spread of your genetic lineage across the sixteen regions of Great Britain and Ireland.

Interactive distribution map of The British Isles

Four Nations Distribution

Our Chromo2 customers receive even more supporting materials within the myDNA platform, including the Four Nations graphic which shows the distribution of your Haplogroup across Great Britain and Ireland.

Distribution of our markers

Haplogroup Frequencies Graphic

YDNA Project Participant Results Breakdown

Who are we?

The genetic make up of the British Isles is slowly beginning to reveal itself. The percentage of people who belong to each haplogroup is demonstrated below. Which one will you belong to?

Distribution of our markers

The darker bubbles above the line each represent dominant branches of the YDNA tree and the total percentage of people whose group arose from it. The bubbles which descend from these are sub groups of the dominant branches and are related to a kindred.

Phylogenetic tree

You results will include an interactive phylogenetic tree. If, as in the detail shown below, you belong to haplogroup I-M253 you will see the large I branch of the tree and the line of descent to reach M253 will be highlighted. You therefore carry all the markers on this line of descent. It is possible that you may test for further markers downstream of the haplogroup for which your story has been written and these will also be shown. The furthest defined marker on the tree is your subtype, in this case S243.

Distribution of I-M253 - Teutonic marker

Genetic Signature

Chromo2 customers will be tested for over 15,000 YDNA and/or over 3,000 mtDNA markers, depending on the test(s) ordered. Whilst a subset of these markers will define which haplogroup and subtype you belong to, you might also test positive for markers that do not yet define a branch of the phylogenetic trees. Your genetic signature is a complete list of all the markers you have tested positive for, and will allow you to compare your results to others of a similar haplogroup and subtype to learn more about the tree or to see if you match. An example of a YDNA genetic signature is shown on the right.

Chromo2 YDNA Customers will also be able to download their raw SNP data and an indication of whether they are positive or negative for each of the 15,000 YDNA markers.

L1098+, L1105+, L1118+, L1123+, L1129+, L1130 +,L1137+, L1143+, L1145+, L1150+, L1002+, L1013+, L1053+, L1112+, P305+, V168+, V241+, V221+, L438+, L440+, L604+, L969+, M42+, M94+, M299+, PK1+, SRY10831+, V29+, V102+, V187+, M168+, M294+, P143+, L132+, M89+, M213+, M235+, P14+, P134+, P135+, P136+, P138+, P139+, P140+, P141+, P142+, P145+, P146+, P148+, P149+, P151+, P157+, P158+, P159+, P160+, P163+, P166+, S137+, S138+, M429+, P123+, P124+, P126+, P127+, P129+, P130+, L41+, M170+, M258+, P212+, U179+, L64+, L75+, L80+, L81+, L121+, L123+, L124+, L125+, L157+, L840+, M253+, M307+, S63+, S66+, S107+, S108+, S110+, S438+, S243+, L1237+


A list of references from the historical narrative, as well as a handy resource for additional reading.

Mellars, Paul
'Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa circa 60,000 years ago? A new model.'
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences June 20th, 2006

Petraglia, Michael
'Middle Paleolithic assemblages from the Indian subcontinent before and after the Toba super eruption.'
Science, July 6th, 2007

Zielinski, Gregory
Essay in Geophysical Research Letters, April 15th, 1996

Compare Standard and Chromo2 results packages

Compare Standard and Chromo2 tests